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Most fossils contain a small amount of carbon, but carbon film fossils are primarily composed of carbon. When an organism dies or a leaf falls, it sinks into the earth's layers and decomposes.A carbon film is made when the oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen of the organism disappear, leaving a thin layer of carbon.At the moment of a plant or animal's death, the carbon-14 begins to decay.The half-life, or amount of time it takes for the number of atoms in any given sample to be reduced by half, is 5,700 years.
When the fish or crustaceans died, their bodies most likely sank to bottom of the body of water, were carried by the current and got wedged between or under rocks.
The main relative dating method is stratigraphy (pronounced stra-TI-gra-fee), which is the study of layers of rocks or the objects embedded within those layers.
This method is based on the assumption (which nearly always holds true) that deeper layers of rock were deposited earlier in Earth's history, and thus are older than more shallow layers.
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Dating techniques are procedures used by scientists to determine the age of an object or a series of events.
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The two main types of dating methods are relative and absolute.