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Coastline shape, local climate and wind, and ocean bottom topography also contribute to upwelling.
The slow mixing and the upwelling of deep waters mean that the surface water of oceans already have apparent radiocarbon age relative to the atmosphere.
Shells can be categorized as marine, estuarine, or riverine.
Analysts in AMS labs need to know the type of shell they are dealing with in order to establish the potential contaminants and determine the methods to remove them.
This carbon exchange usually affects the shell’s exterior.
Recrystallization, on the other hand, can affect even the inner layers of a shell.
A great proportion of shell materials sent to AMS labs for carbon 14 dating are mollusk shells.
The marine effect is a consequence of the slow mixing between surface waters and deep waters in the oceans.
The rapid exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the biosphere via the carbon dioxide pathway is not exactly the same between the atmosphere and the oceans.
– Please take note that exposure to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) may affect the radiocarbon dating results.
It has been shown that powdered carbonates will absorb atmospheric CO2 due to the very large surface area.